GRE Reading Comprehension

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Source: CHP

Echolocating bats emit sounds in patterns— characteristic of each species—that contain both frequency-modulated (FM) and constant-frequency (CF) signals. The broadband FM signals and the narrowband CF signals travel out to a target, reflect from it, and return to the hunting bat. In this process of transmission and reflection, the sounds are changed, and the changes in the echoes enable the bat to perceive features of the target. The FM signals report information about target characteristics that modify the timing and the fine frequency structure, or spectrum, of echoes—for example, the target's size, shape, texture, surface structure, and direction in space. Because of their narrow bandwidth, CF signals portray only the target's presence and, in the case of some bat species, its motion relative to the bat‘s. Responding to changes in the CF echo's frequency, bats of some species correct in flight for the direction and velocity of their moving prey.

Question List: 1 2

According to the passage, the information provided to the bat by CF echoes differs from that provided by FM echoes in which of the following ways?

  • A Only CF echoes alert the bat to moving targets.
  • B Only CF echoes identify the range of widely spaced targets.
  • C Only CF echoes report the target's presence to the bat.
  • D In some species, CF echoes enable the bat to judge whether it is closing in on its target.
  • E In some species, CF echoes enable the bat to discriminate the size of its target and the direction in which the target is moving.

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